I thought this was interesting…

Selections from “The Pastor and the Prelate” by Rev. David Calderwood

pg 22

4. The PASTOR is a bishop set over a flock, in respect whereof he is called a bishop, and not in relation to other pastors.[1]

The PRELATE sets himself as a bishop over pastors, and in respect of them is called a bishop, and not in relation to any particular flock.

5. The PASTOR is set over a particular flock,[2] that may convene together in one place, amongst whom he may exercise the whole parts of the ministry, – as preaching, prayer, ministration of the sacraments and discipline, according to the trust committed to him by the Son of God, in whose name he is ambassador, from whom he derives his power, on whom he depends in the exercise of his ministry, and to whom he must be accountable, and to no other pastor or bishop.

The PRELATE both ordains pastors at large, without assignation of a particular flock (as if he were either making masters of art and doctors of physic, or as if ordination should go before election, which is as absurd as first to crown a kind, or install a magistrate, and then choose him,) and sets himself as a proper pastor over a whole province, and over many kirks in diverse provinces, as well of those that he never saw, as of that where his seat is, esteeming the pastors to be but his fellow helpers and substitutes; as having their power from him, being obliged to render account to him, and whom he may continue and displace at his pleasure.

pg 23

7. The PASTOR hath committed to him, by Jesus Christ, not only the keys of the inward and private court of conscience, but also of the outward and public court of jurisdiction,[3] for the deciding controversies, making of constitutions, and inflicting of censures, they being both one and the same power of binding and loosing. He hath the shepherd’s staff in his hand as well as the shepherd’s pipe at his mouth.

The PRELATE keeps the staff in his own hand, and arrogates to himself, even amongst them who never heard him, all power of jurisdiction (whether dogmatic, didactic, or critic, as it is distinguished,[4] which the apostles themselves, notwithstanding their extraordinary gifts, would never do, but in all these parts of jurisdiction behaved themselves as presbyters.

pg 31

16. The PASTOR finds that every part of his office, and every name whereby he is called in Scripture, doth call upon him to be personally resident,[5] and where he resides, to be a terror to the wicked and a comfort to the godly.

The PRELATE either waits upon council, session, or court, or dwells so far from his charge, that the speech of Caranza (providing the necessity of the personal residence of bishops), may be applied to him: “He is a bishop, but without overseeing, – an ambassador, but runs where his errand lies not, – a captain and soldier, but far from his station, – a father and steward, but suffers the children to perish for want of food.” Or if he happens to be resident, his lordship is a protection to the papist, to the carnal professor, and to the idol-minister and idle-belly, and such a vexation to the vigilant pastor, that he had much rather he was a non-resident.

pg 33

The Prelate’s objection – The PRELATE will object, notwithstanding all the evil that hath been said, or that ye can say against him, that the name, the calling, the power, and the life of the bishop, is set down in the Word.

The Pastor’s answer – The question is not of the bishop, but of the prelate or diocesan bishop, whether he is the divine bishop. Haman could think upon no man but himself, when the man was named whom the king would honor; even so the prelate imagines no other bishop to be spoken of in Scripture but himself. And as Alexander the great took Jupiter’s ominous salutation GREEK {O child or babe,} for GREEK {Oh son of Jupiter,} even so in the prelate’s ambitious ear, every word of a bishop sounds honor unto him. But the truth is that the pastor, and not the diocesan bishop, is the bishop divine.

1. The diocesan bishop is but one, in a diocese, over many kirks.

2. The diocesan bishop hath a form of ordination of his own, different from the ordination of a pastor.

3. The diocesan bishop preaches at his pleasure, and is not obliged to preach by the nature and necessity of his calling.

4. The diocesan bishop hath no particular congregation for his flock, to feed with the word and sacraments.

5. The diocesan bishop is, for the greater part, a secular person.

1. The divine bishops may be many in one city, and over one Kirk.

2. The divine bishop hath no other but the ordination of the pastor.

3. The divine bishop is bound by his calling to preach with all diligence.

4. The divine bishop is tied to a particular flock.

5. The divine bishop is a person merely ecclesiastical.

Therefore the diocesan bishop is not the divine bishop, neither doth the word of God acknowledge any diocesan Kirk, or any prelate or diocesan bishop charged with the care of many particular congregations, and having majority of power to direct and correct other pastors.


[1] Acts XV.2; XX.17; Phil. I.1, 1Pet. V.1

[2] Kirks of Judea, Gal.I.22; kirks of Galatia, Gal I.2; of Asia, Macedonia, &c. ever in the number of multitude; as for Acts VII. 38, it is spoken of the whole nation of the Jews in the wilderness camping about the ark.

[3] Acts XV.6; XVI.4; XX.28, 29; 1Cor. V; XIV.32,40; 1 Thess. V.12; 1Tim. V.17; Tit. I.9; Heb XIII.17.

[4] Deciding of controversies, making of canons of order, or censuring of offenses.

[5] Caranza proves the necessity of the residence of bishops, by five places in the Old Testament, by three out of the evangelists, and five out of the apostolic writings; and how can he be a bishop, a shepherd, a watchman, &c., that is a non-resident.

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